Rafael Yuste, Neuroscientist
"Decipher the brain us allow educate better".
The limits and the possibilities of the neuroscience
Are interested in the brain for understand us to ourselves . How are, how emerges all our life mental of what take within the skull.
Still not understand how works the brain. Take already more than 100 years, from Cajal, generation after generation, millions and million money invested in all the laboratories of the world. The idea was that the brain, the unit of operation of the brain is the nerve cell individual. Is a theory that precisely proposed Cajal. But if watch the brain of any animal, ours, for example, has 80 billion of nerve cells. Imagine what is 80 billion of nerve cells. Some numbers astronomical. And are all connected ones between yes. Not have been able to decipher the brain studying the nerve cells of one in one. Clicking them with electrode and seeing how active or render inactive when the animal is behaving or when the patient has a thought. Is possible that the problem avenges for there, that the unit not is a nerve cell; the unit is a group of nerve cells working jointly.
Not know what passes in the brain when learn. Cajal put in the table several possibilities. One, that form new connections between nerve cells. Another, that the connections that there are do stronger. The two are right now being examined with magnifying glass for the neurobiologists.
Have learnt a lot over the history of the ways that work and not work for educate to the children. And for learn. Proving things to see what works and what not works. But all these knowledge, that is what way the body of what teach the schools of Magisterium and what teaches in the education systems, not is rabbeted with the machine that it generates, that is the brain. Have a dissociation between the education and the neurobiology. Obviously, have to be connected. Because if a boy learns, something you have changed in the brain. Has to have there some change, but not know exactly the relationship.
Of my personal experience of give lessons, I always have the sensation that what more me has marked to me in my education has been the personal contact with a teacher or a teacher. In other words, the one to one. The inspiration of a person specifically that know, talk with her and you relate. Always fodder that the ideal way of educate is one with one. What do sometimes is give it in plan tutorship, that every student, all the weeks, has to write an essay on an issue, I it correct and feel with the student and it argue. That's the way it is as teach, for example, in the universities British, in Cambridge and in Oxford. The motivation is also basic, the add them in the lessons by questions when have a group big. In my personal experience, what me seems better is deal them directly. Personal contact, inspiration direct. Stimulate them. And that involve emotionally. The brain our has ingredients emotional that are anchored in the operation of the nervous system. Not can dissociate. And the ingredients emotional you help to learn. The repetition you support to learn because supposes that the circuits neuronales reactivate and do stronger. And be involved emotionally also you support.
More than Rafael Yuste
- Neurobiologist and teacher of Biological Sciences and Neuroscience in the University from Columbia (The United States). Rafael Yuste is moreover the co-director of the Institute Kavli of investigations neurological of this University from 2004. Additionally created the project BRAIN (acrónimo English from Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies), that is, ‘Investigación of the Brain through the Advance of Neurotechnologies Innovadoras’ that looks for create a map of the brain human.
- Which are major challenges that has ahead the science of the brain?
The challenge is the decide to what level works. Works at the level of the nerve cells individual or of the groups of nerve cells? Now, if it think general, the challenge of the neurobiology is understand how generates the behavior by the operation of these circuits of nerve cells. Then, a way that have the neurobiologists of describe this is understand what call the “code brain”. Know that the genetic code describes the relationship among the DNA, the RNA and the proteins. It call the “central dogma of the molecular biology ”. Was the decipher how the structure of the DNA specifies the structure of the RNA and the structure of the proteins. Is as understand a foreign language. Made the dictionary and can jump of a space to another and open the genome, and see what is written. Read the genome. We the neurobiologists want read the brain. Have to decipher this foreign language.