Jesus C. Guillén
Teacher and researcher
"The executive functions are essential for the success in the life".
Possible virtues of the neuroeducation
All can improve, can learn during all the life, share another history. Has seen that the babies, in the first semester, are able to differentiate phonemes, from of any from, of Mandarin Chinese, of Spanish, of English, through a statistical learning and inferencial of your brain. However, in the second semester, specialize in the sounds to which are exposed; around the eighth or tenth month, already only differentiate the sounds to which are exhibited in house, have become listeners cultural. Have plasticbrains, brains social, ceberos only, take into account these characteristics in education?
The neuroeducation is a field of study, an integrative approach, transdisciplinary in which come together the knowledge supplied for the neuroscience. Because of the development of the technologies of visualization brain, can analyze the operation of the brain of people calculating, creating, cooperating, playing, thrilling, reading. This is important, but must make up these knowledge with which contribute, the psychology and the pedagogy. The objective which is? Improve the processes of education and learning being based in the knowledge of the operation of the brain. Choose four questions that understand that are important. The first, linked to the brain development, has seen that the defect harms, not that the excess benefits in the early childhood, so much from scratch to three as in the adolescence, has checked that gives a process of reorganization to level brain brutal, what us has demonstrated the neuroscience is that the lack social, affective, harms the development to level brain. Has checked also that the status economic member worked against harm the correct development of the cerebral cortex. Not knows exactly why, if because of the stress, the lack of stimuli, the bad diet, the lack of affection, but harms. On the other hand, the excess, the stress that you causes for because of the on stimulation to the babies can be very harmful, especially in regions of the brain as the crust prefrontal, headquarters of it more rational. Important this phase from scratch to three. And in the adolescence has seen that gives a reorganization spectacular of the brain, probably the reason through which observe in the adolescents these behaviors impulsive, this need of reward, owes to that temporary gap in the maturation of the crust prefrontal, headquarters of it more rational that until the veintitantos years not finishes of grow up. With respect to the maturation of the system límbico, believe that the best strategy for face the adolescence is information.
The neuroscientist us are suggesting that the adolescents not need information, not are aware of the decisions that take. Need self regulation. And the self regulation leaves working with time, with good education programs emotional. The neuroscientist us suggest, for example, that in the initial learning of the reading, is very important is the development of the phonological route. That mail among the sounds, the phonemes and the letters, the graphemes, over the method global that had used. Or in the initial learning of the mathematics. Years ago believed that were born as though was a brain blank, not, not is a table skims, really has checked that the babies shortly after be born have a sort of meaning numerical inborn, are able to differentiate sets of objects small, two with respect to three, without need of tell. Are able to identify arithmetic operations basic, in a stage them place an object, cancellations the curtain, they see as place another, lift the curtain and instead of appear two objects the logical arithmetic operation, one more one, two, appears one, and surprise before the event impossible. Additionally us are suggesting these investigations aspects very relevant related to the emotions, that not can separate what is emotional of what is cognitive. Or with respect to the attention, the neuroscientist us are proving that not is a constructo only, that there are different nets atencionales, a network of alert, a network of orientation, but one especially important: the attention executive, that us allows be concentrated in the task works, inhibiting stimuli irrelevant. And what can do in practice for improve this attention executive so important for the study, for the learning? As us it are proving the researchers, is software playful specific that works these questions, but also is seeing the importance of the mindfulness, the importance of the exercise, halts of four minutes, so that the students can get around, are enough for improve this concentration during the task works subsequent.
From the approach of the neuroeducation, for us is essential a learning from, in and for the life. And which is the critical factor that us suggest the investigations? Has name. Calls “executive functions of the brain”. Are the functions cognitive complex that us differences of other species, are which us allow plan, take decisions suitable. Essential for a good payment of the everyday life, essential for the academic yield of the student body.
The researchers have seen that the executive functions are essential for the success in the life, if I not know control me, have difficulties in a traffic jam of traffic, but also it happen ill to the try solve a labor trouble or a personal conflict, or me cost be centered trying solve a mathematical problem. The best thing of all is that has seen that can train; this software playful that remarked earlier, these programs computerized, task works of discrimination visual that allow work them. But she believes after all these years, that the best approach is go beyond what is cognitive. Know what harms to the executive functions or to theadquarters of the same, the crust prefrontal. What you prevents take a good decision? The stress, the poor health, the loneliness. What can do? That the children and adolescents play, share, sing, dance, draw, get around; that is, take care of the physical need, social and emotional of the students, or if wants take into account, the disciplines considered usually as secondary linked to the game, to the physical education, to the art education or to the education emotional. Not are talking of that not is important the learning of the mathematics, of the reading, but have to share leading role with these other disciplines.
More than Jesus C. Guillén
- Jesus C. Guillén is researcher and teacher of the post graduate one of neuroeducation of the University from Barcelona and author of the blog: 'School with brain'. Additionally collaborates with the group of investigation of the post graduate one of the Institute of Education of the University from Barcelona, the master's degree in neurodidactics of the Rey Juan Carlos University and the degree 'neurosciences and emotions in the learning' of the national University Burgh María from Argentina. For Guillén, the neuroeducation supposes an advance for the methodologies of learning asset, since promote the development of several responsibilities for the life.
- What solutions proposes the neuroeducation for the attention to the diversity that find within the classroom?
Have spoken of that the neuroscience us says that every brain is only and singular and, between quotation marks, abnormal. If teach in a permanent way, if assess always in the same way to the students, goes to be complicated really take care of the diversity in the classroom. Assume that, of course, not there are all-in-one solutions. Some strategies that can be utensils are those good projects. What important is the cooperation, the brain social taken to the classroom. But, so that has a real cooperation requires education emotional. If the students not have assumed a real series of responsibilities emotional essential linked to the solidarity, the respect, the acceptance of the opinion discrepante, not can cooperate. That leave introducing those cooperative structures, pencils to the center for go going deep in that work cooperative. And then already can happen to good projects. Which stress more on the learning are which call projects Service Learning: learn doing a service to the community. In these projects that are interdisciplinary, participate students of different phases educational. That's the way it is the life, all are different. Participate teachers of different disciplines, participate the families, them invites, not only to the celebration of the projects, also during. The executive teams and the social entities, all the teaching community and the society participating in the process of improvement of the Education. The students not are really the citizens of the future, are the citizens of the present, are transforming the society from now on. Not is better structure or cooperative strategy that the APS projects. And what important, also has seen, the be able to of the tutorship between identical. It have witted always in the classroom. Sometimes are unable of explain something with our words to the youngster, it explains the partner or the partner and it understands a lot of better, more easily. Because we have automated your learning and the partner or the partner it finishes of learn, even the expectations that generate. All are different and that is necessary to have it in account in Education, assuming of course that not there are all-in-one solutions and that every context is different. But is necessary to do the attempt. And if us costs to level individual, do the attempt for cooperate with other teachers for amplifly the message.